Attack on Titan Wiki
Attack on Titan Wiki


Jaw Titans
◄ Preceded by Porco Galliard
Followed by ►
Falco Grice
Quote1.png I saw Marcel's memories. He tricked the army into making a loser like you into a Warrior... all to protect me. Now you have to admit it... That... to the end... I've always been better than you. Quote2.png
— Galliard's last words before his sacrifice.[3]

Porco Galliard (ポルコ・ガリアード Poruko Gariādo?) was an Eldian and the younger brother of Marcel Galliard. He was one of Marley's Warriors and inherited the Jaw Titan from Ymir.


Human form

In his human form, Galliard had the appearance of a young man of medium height and slender complexion. He had gray eyes, and his blond hair was in an undercut style which was pushed back. He wore combat trousers and a short coat. He also wore the Eldian armband on his left arm, as required of all Eldians under the authority of Marley. While undercover on Paradis Island, Galliard stole a Garrison uniform to disguise himself as part of the Yeagerists.

Jaw Titan form

Galliard's Titan, the Jaw Titan, possessed deep-set eyes with a heavy brow and long blond hair. While his chin sported a long beard, the rest of his face was hairless with a cog-like arrangement of seemingly hard skin in place of lips. His Titan also sported what appeared to be an armored face, fingers, and knuckles. Galliard's Titan was muscular and well-toned, and he usually traveled on all fours in a quadruped manner similar to the Cart Titan.


Galliard appeared to be a brave figure, using his Titan to leap in the way of bullets and protect his fellow Eldians Gabi and Falco. It is, however, quite possible that Galliard was not acting on bravery and was instead certain of his ability to withstand gunfire with the absence of the anti-Titan artillery, indicating that he has fought on battlefields before. As a dedicated Warrior, he would charge right into the heat of battle, attacking an enemy gunman and crushing him for his people.[4]

He also had somewhat of a bitter personality, and was shown to treat others, particularly Reiner Braun, condescendingly. Galliard seemed to be prone to using passive-aggressive language, although this may simply be motivated because of his animosity towards Reiner.[5] He is, or at least was, prone to violence, as seen when he punched Reiner after they had an argument.[6] He also appears to be extremely arrogant in his own power, trusting that his Titan powers are more than enough to keep him alive against the experienced Survey Corps and was visibly shocked when they are able to essentially fight him to a standstill.[7]

It should be noted that despite his rude attitude, Galliard cared very deeply for his fellow Warriors. While he was initially cold and unwelcoming to their friendly advances, he showed great panic and anger when Pieck and Zeke Yeager are defeated during battle with the Survey Corps. Also, he showed himself to be quite a headstrong person, liable to act recklessly in critical situations. Driven by anger when he learns that Bertolt Hoover died and his former Titan is being used by Paradis to destroy the Marleyan fleet, Galliard rushed against Eren in a blind rage and oblivious to Pieck's pleas.[8] This left both Pieck and Zeke more vulnerable to attacks, which was the opening the Survey Corps needs to defeat them afterward. This personality trait also got Galliard ambushed by Mikasa Ackerman, when she realized he will act carelessly once he saw the Paradis Island airship flying above Liberio.[9] This led to him being mangled and used to destroy the crystal in which Lara Tybur protected herself.[10]


Some years before the Paradis Island Operation, Galliard was a leading candidate to inherit the Armored Titan.[11] He participated in the selection process along other Eldian children. He and his older brother Marcel were chosen to be candidates for Warriors after an extenuating physical test involving running under the rain with military equipment.[12] After reuniting with the other six possible candidates and receiving the information about the future offensive against Paradis Island, Galliard scolded Reiner Braun as he considered him the only one without a special talent, being only fueled by his love towards Marley and his adulating towards their superiors. After Reiner accused him of being an Eldian spy, Galliard punched him and was stopped by his brother before continuing to their destination; even though Marcel had convinced him to stop the assault, Galliard continued to mock Reiner.[13]

It was eventually decided in the year 843 that Reiner would inherit the power of the Armored Titan; Galliard's brother Marcel was additionally chosen to inherit the power of the Jaw Titan. When the Warriors departed for Paradis Island, Galliard remained behind on the continental mainland.[14]


Marley arc

Galliard destroys the Allies' railway

When the Paradis Island Operation is abandoned in the year 850, Ymir, who had eaten Marcel and stolen the power of the Jaw Titan, is sent back to Marley. Afterward, Galliard is chosen to reclaim the Jaw Titan for Marley. Turning into a Pure Titan, Galliard consumes Ymir and gains the power of the Titans. He inherits Ymir's memories and understands her history and motives, but he sees nothing from the memories of his brother.[14]

Four years after the Warriors' return, Galliard is present at the battle of Fort Slava. Under orders from the Warriors' Marleyan superiors led by Commander Magath, he along with his comrade Pieck are unauthorized to engage in combat with the Mid-East Allied Forces at the fort due to the presence of the highly dangerous anti-Titan artillery. However, once Gabi succeeds in bombing the armored train which held the artillery, Galliard joins the fight and shields her and Falco from machine gun fire before charging forward, decimating the enemies defenses.[15]

Galliard recalls inheriting Ymir's power

After clearing their defenses, Galliard keeps advancing towards the enemy, killing several soldiers inside the trenches and using his powerful jaw to break the railways.[16] After the Armored Titan is deployed inside the fortress, he destroys several anti-Titan artillery platforms in order to protect him.[17] He quickly retires and leaves the remaining soldiers to the Armored Titan and the Beast Titan.

After the battle, Galliard watches over Reiner as he recovers from his injuries following the battle of Fort Slava. When Reiner awakens, he thanks Galliard for saving him in Fort Slava, but Galliard coldly tells him that he only wanted to keep Marley from losing the Armored Titan.[18] Galliard then explains that he did not inherit his brother's memories but he did inherit Ymir's memories and harshly berates Reiner for needing to be saved by his comrades so often, including Marcel whose death Galliard holds Reiner accountable for. Reiner eventually leaves after Pieck joins them, and Galliard stays behind with Pieck.[19]

Galliard later joins the rest of the Marleyan military on the train returning to their homeland, seated among the other Warriors.[20]

After arriving at Liberio, Galliard is seen helping Colt walking since he is suffering from a hangover.[21] After entering into the Internment Zone, he is greeted by a man and a woman.[22]

Galliard attends the Warrior meeting

Galliard is soon summoned to the Warriors' headquarters for a meeting with Zeke. On his way, he meets up with Pieck, who is trying to walk on all fours to emulate her Cart Titan. Once the two arrive, Zeke informs them of his plan to stabilize Marley's steadily waning power by recommencing the Paradis Island Operation to reclaim the Founding Titan. Galliard is unhappy at the news that the noble Tybur family will be acting as the Warriors' spokespersons during the affair, but is convinced by Reiner and Zeke to agree to the plan.[23]

Galliard quietly attends a military meeting figuring out the logistics of an invasion of Paradis Island. After the meeting ends, he joins his Warrior colleagues outside on a balcony, and sarcastically compliments the senior officers as wise. When Falco overtakes Gabi in a footrace, and Colt expresses that Gabi's superior ranking will not change, Galliard calls the selection criteria vague. Zeke's statement to Colt, that it is only natural for a big brother to not want Falco to become a Warrior, resonates within Galliard who stays silent following the remark.[24] Galliard, along with the other Warriors, are instructed to take a seat before Willy Tybur's speech as ambassadors to Marley.[25]

Pieck and Galliard fall inside the Warrior confinement area

After taking their seat, a Marley soldier informs the Warriors that Magath wants to speak with them. After sending Zeke off, the soldier leads Galliard and Pieck to an empty room. Confused, Galliard asks where Magath is, only for the soldier to cut a nearby rope, opening a trap door underneath the two.[26]

Galliard and Pieck fall onto a bed of straw, fracturing their bones in the process. Pieck identifies the hole as an old-fashioned Warrior confinement area, and they note the lack of space to transform. Galliard wonders about the soldier's plan, Pieck answering that she is not sure, but recognizes the soldier from somewhere.[27]

The captive Warriors begin to feel tremors inside the confinement trap. This allows Pieck to deduce that Titans are battling outside, giving reason to why they were captured. As Galliard begins questioning how to escape, the Panzer Unit comes to their rescue. Pieck explains that she had taken security measures because of the suspicious feeling she had gotten from their supposed escort. The unit then sends down a rope, which the Warriors use to climb up and out of the pitfall.[28]

The rescuers inform them about the Attack Titan's sudden appearance, and how the War Hammer Titan is currently engaging it in battle. Whilst Pieck briefs her troops, Galliard prepares to go and join the fray, though she asks him to stop and observe the situation for a while. Galliard is then shocked to see a group of soldiers dart over them using anti-personnel vertical maneuvering equipment, having never seen it used before.[29]

Galliard bites the Attack Titan's nape

Galliard eventually separates from Pieck and, after transforming into his Jaw Titan, joins the battle. He sneaks up on Eren Yeager's Attack Titan from behind and leaps onto its nape, distracting him and ultimately saving Lara Tybur from getting consumed. Galliard then bites down into the neck of the Attack Titan, remarking that he has always waited for the moment he could retake the Founder back for Marley. When he is unable to bite through, he is left confused, unaware that a soldier had slashed the muscles on the left side of his Titan's face. The Attack Titan then smashes Galliard on a building behind them, and as he sees the soldier maneuvering around, he fearfully realizes that it is an Ackerman.[30]

Galliard left frightened by Levi's swift attack

Acknowledging the danger he is now in, Galliard tries to escape after chipping away at the Attack Titan's arm but is quickly struck with a Thunder Spear; this brings him crashing into the ground. Galliard is soon surrounded by numerous Survey Corps soldiers. He is bewildered that a bunch of humans have been able to stun him while in his Titan form and are trying to kill him; he then realizes the soldiers attacking him are the devils of Paradis Island. Pieck's Cart Titan then arrives in time with the Panzer Unit, killing several enemy soldiers with its machine guns, much to Galliard's surprise.[31] As the Beast Titan also joins the battlefield, Galliard and Pieck stand by its side, facing the rest of the Survey Corps.[32]

As an enemy soldier flies above the Cart Titan ready to strike, Galliard spots them and leaps up in the air; he manages to kill the soldier, to Pieck's relief, and flings the corpse away. He partially emerges from his Titan and warns Pieck of the Ackerman, as they had lost sight of him.

Galliard engages with Mikasa

He listens as Pieck assesses the situation, and he states if they could get the Founding Titan, the enemy would lose the ace up their sleeves. They are interrupted by a sudden massive explosion at the harbor; Pieck recognizes it as coming from the Colossus Titan and realizes Bertolt was killed and had his Titan ability taken by the enemy. Angered by this, Galliard once again charges at Eren Yeager, remarking that the enemy's plans would be ruined if he gets rid of him. Seeing another Ackerman in his way, Galliard lunges at her as she readies her blades to engage him.[33]

Galliard is stunned to see Zeke's Titan get taken down by Levi and then sees that the Cart Titan is disabled as well. Fearing that both have been killed, this drives him into a rage once more and targets Eren. Growing out the claws on his Titan form, Galliard avoids another attack by Mikasa and lunges at the Attack Titan, only to get punched in the face. Despite this, Galliard hangs on and bites down on the hardened fist made by Eren. He then rakes the face of the Attack Titan with numerous strikes, one getting deflected by the crystal surrounding Lara Tybur. Galliard momentarily retreats back to the husk of the War Hammer Titan.[34]

Galliard is forced to break the crystal

Noticing an incoming airship, Galliard realizes that is how the Survey Corps plan to retreat. He changes targets but fails to see Mikasa, who cripples his Titan by slicing through his legs and cutting off his right foot. This sends Galliard crashing down in front of Eren;[35] the latter subdues the Jaw Titan by tearing off both its arms and forces the crystal into its mouth. Galliard realizes the Attack Titan wishes to use him to steal the War Hammer Titan but is unable to stop it; he is forced by Eren to bite down and break through the hardened crystal, killing the Lara Tybur and allowing Eren to obtain her Titan powers.[36]

He is then slammed to the ground and left unconscious by Eren, who tries to bite his nape and eat him as well. Seeing this, Gabi and Falco yell for Reiner to save him, eventually managing to awaken him. Reiner appears in an un-armored Titan form and takes Galliard away from Eren before being punched and knocked down too.[37] Eren stops his attempts of eating Galliard and flees the scene with Mikasa.

War for Paradis arc

Some time after the battle finishes, Galliard sits with a recovered Pieck, drinking alcohol when Reiner wakes up. Galliard asks him if he had a nightmare; not waiting for a response, he passes a bottle to Reiner, wishing their current situation was just a bad dream.[38] Galliard later takes part in an emergency meeting with Magath and the other Warriors. He is shocked to hear that Zeke is most likely working with Paradis and deceived all of Marley.[39]

The Jaw Titan protects Pieck and Gabi

As part of the retaliation against Paradis, Galliard and Pieck are sent to infiltrate Paradis's military. The two infiltrate the military headquarters where Eren Yeager is staying, and Galliard stands by in a Survey Corps disguise while Pieck leads him to the roof.[40] Once Pieck has brought Eren to the roof of the building, Galliard transforms into his Jaw Titan form and ambushes Eren, but is unable to prevent Eren from transforming. As Eren transforms, Galliard uses the Jaw Titan to shield Pieck and Gabi from the resulting blast.[41] On Pieck's orders, Galliard cuts off her arm and uses his own Titan to distract Eren as she transforms. Once Pieck has fled with Gabi, Galliard falls back to a safe distance himself.[42]

Galliard gets repeatedly struck by the Beast Titan

As Reiner engages Eren in his Armored Titan form, Galliard tries to attack Eren from behind, determined to get revenge for being made an accomplice in the War Hammer Titan's murder. He avoids an initial attack from Eren, but he and Reiner are both skewered and left immobile when Eren begins creating hardened structures from the ground. Galliard manages to free himself from the spike he is skewered on and tries to attack Eren again but is forced to retreat as Eren creates more spikes. Galliard goes in for an attack again as Reiner grapples with Eren, but Eren easily smacks him out of the air, knocking him into a row of nearby buildings.[43] Still out of combat, he witnesses the arrival of Zeke to the battlefield but manages to recover.[44] He tries to attack Eren again but is caught in the middle of a barrage of stones thrown from the Beast Titan[45], taking Galliard down once again.

Galliard learns of Marcel lying to the Marleyan army

Seeing Eren try to approach Zeke's Beast Titan, Galliard grabs the Attack Titan and bites down on its leg, only to be struck repeatedly in the nape by the Attack Titan's hardened fists and left severely wounded.[46] As Reiner fights Eren, he yells at Galliard to wake up and assist him. When he reaches to grab Galliard, the latter receives the memory of Marcel telling Reiner that he sabotaged his brother in order to save him from becoming a Warrior, to Galliard's shock and dismay.[47]

Galliard admits he finally saw his brother's memories

Soon, Galliard realizes that he is unable to heal all his wounds and exits the Jaw Titan. Stumbling towards Reiner and a newly transformed Falco Grice, he states how he finally was able to see his brother's memories and is now aware of Marcel's role in him not being selected as the Armored Titan eleven years prior. Proclaiming that he will always be a better Warrior than Reiner, Galliard allows himself to be devoured by Falco and transfers his power to the young Warrior candidate.[48]

Galliard is one of the many Titan inheritors whose Titan is created by Ymir Fritz to defend Eren while he is attempting to Rumble the world. His Titan attacks Reiner, using its claws to slash his Titan's face until Connie Springer blows it away with a Thunder Spear.[49] In the middle of the fighting Galliard and a handful of other inheritors are reawakened in the Path world by Zeke. Zeke asks Galliard and the other inheritors to lend their strength to him and his allies.

Taking control of his Titan, Galliard helps fend off the myriad Titans that are attempting to defend Eren. He and Marcel save Jean Kirstein and Pieck from being killed and continue to fight until Eren's nape is destroyed.[50]


As an Eldian Warrior, Galliard had undergone advanced military training in order to prepare him to use the Titan power. He was in very good shape and his overall abilities were strong enough to make him an Eldian Warrior.[51]

Power of the Titans

Galliard had the ability to transform into a 5 meter Titan known as the Jaw Titan (顎の巨人 Agito no Kyojin?).

Close up of Galliard's mouth, displaying both rows of teeth

  • Jaw: Galliard's most prominent feature and the one that gave him his Titan's namesake, Galliard's mouth was specifically made to bite very durable materials. He had two sets of teeth: the first one is an exterior set of hardened teeth instead of lips. The second set is located inside the mouth, and it is a series of pointy teeth with hollow spaces between each individual tooth. This formidable weapon was efficient enough to bite railways off the ground with little effort and without harming his own mouth.[52] He was also able to bite and crush the hardened crystal of the War Hammer Titan.[53]
  • Speed: Galliard had shown an outstanding level of speed and agility, even for a Titan. He could cover great distances while jumping, both when he was on the offensive[54] or escaping from incoming attacks.[55] He was so fast that, even in his Titan form, he was able to make surprise attacks that the enemy was not able to predict, for instance, when he eliminated the soldiers in Fort Slava who were attacking Reiner without them noticing at time.[17] He was noted to be much faster than his predecessor, Ymir.
  • Regeneration: Just like all others with the power of the Titans, Galliard had the ability to regenerate any injuries he may suffer. During the battle of Fort Slava, Galliard was shot several times in his Titan form. However, by the time Reiner arrived on the battlefield, the bullet injuries in his face and shoulder appeared healed.[55]


  • Marcel Galliard - Galliard cared greatly for his brother Marcel and developed a hatred for Reiner Braun after learning of Marcel's sacrifice for his sake. He saw his brother as a reliable and trustworthy individual, traits which he also saw Reiner mimicking within Ymir's memories.[56] Despite this, Galliard was unaware that Marcel had tried to prevent him from being selected as a Warrior in order for him to have a chance at a long life; when he eventually discovers his brother's actions, he was overcome with emotion.
  • Reiner Braun - As children, Galliard would usually target Reiner and fight him for being a useless soldier with no special talent.[57] Following the ceremony of the Warriors being selected to inherit the power of the Titans in possession of Marley, Galliard was angered that he was passed over in favor of Reiner to receive the Armored Titan, serving to only increase his dislike of the latter. After Reiner's return to Marley after the Paradis Island Operation, Galliard expressed a strong hatred for his fellow Warrior, blaming him for the death of his brother Marcel.[11] He considered Reiner to be cowardly and incompetent, relying on those around him to save him from deadly situations. Galliard also accused Reiner of basing his "soldier" persona off of Marcel, further increasing his animosity towards his fellow Warrior.[56] After Reiner saved Galliard's life in the Raid on Liberio, their relationship seemed less hostile.[38] However, their rivalry remained until Galliard's death, where he proclaimed his superiority before he sacrificed himself, saving Reiner in the process.[48]
  • Pieck Finger - Galliard appeared to be very close friends with Pieck. The two Warriors grew especially close during the Marley Mid-East War, frequently fighting by each other's side in several battles including the battle of Fort Slava at the end of the war. Pieck occasionally referred to him by the affectionate nickname "Pock" (ポッコ Pokko?), though this name seemed to irritate him.[19] He was noticeably distraught after Pieck was injured and defeated in battle with the Survey Corps and risked his life to attack Eren Yeager who started the battle.[58]
  • Zeke Yeager - As his Warchief, Galliard deeply respected Zeke and saw him as a friend and comrade in arms. After Zeke was believed to be killed by the forces of Paradis, Galliard flew into a rage and tried to avenge him. However, this trust was presumed to be shattered after it was revealed that Zeke was working against Marley since at least the start of the Marley Mid-East War.[59]
  • Eren Yeager - Galliard had shown nothing but hatred and anger towards Eren. This was shown during the Raid on Liberio when Galliard repeatedly broke away from his designated target several times to attack Eren; later during the response attack in Shiganshina District, he ambushed Eren on the roof of the prison and then solely targeted him throughout the following battle. Galliard knew how dangerous Eren can be (due to the latter using him to obtain the War Hammer Titan) and had expressed a strong desire to be the one who kills him.[60]

People killed

Failed attempts



  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Attack on Titan Character Encyclopedia (p. 122)
  2. Attack on Titan Character Encyclopedia (p. 146)
  3. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 119 (p. 32)
  4. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 91 (p. 41 - 45)
  5. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 93 (p. 23 - 27)
  6. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 94 (p. 39)
  7. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 102 (p. 35)
  8. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 103 (p. 29-30)
  9. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 104 (p. 24-25)
  10. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 104 (p. 35-40)
  11. 11.0 11.1 Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 93 (p. 24)
  12. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 94 (p. 29 & 30)
  13. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 94 (p. 37 - 39)
  14. 14.0 14.1 Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 93 (p. 24 & 25)
  15. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 91 (p. 22 - 45)
  16. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 92 (p. 3 & 4)
  17. 17.0 17.1 Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 92 (p. 30)
  18. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 93 (p. 23)
  19. 19.0 19.1 Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 93 (p. 27 - 29)
  20. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 93 (p. 39)
  21. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 94 (p. 2)
  22. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 94 (p. 8)
  23. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 95 (p. 8 - 17)
  24. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 98 (p. 1 - 6)
  25. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 98 (p. 41)
  26. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 99 (p. 29 - 31)
  27. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 100 (p. 10 & 11)
  28. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 101 (p. 24 & 25)
  29. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 101 (p. 26 & 27)
  30. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 102 (p. 30-34)
  31. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 102 (p. 34-38)
  32. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 102 (p. 44 & 45)
  33. 33.0 33.1 Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 103 (p. 32)
  34. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 104 (p. 11-17)
  35. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 104 (p. 25)
  36. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 104 (p. 27 - 29)
  37. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 104 (p. 35 - 40)
  38. 38.0 38.1 Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 107 (p. 43 & 44)
  39. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 108 (p. 42 - 43)
  40. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 116 (p. 27)
  41. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 116 (p. 36-41)
  42. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 117 (p. 4-7)
  43. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 117 (p. 19-38)
  44. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 117 (p. 43)
  45. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 118 (p. 31)
  46. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 119 (p. 3-4)
  47. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 119 (p. 10-11)
  48. 48.0 48.1 Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 119 (p. 31 - 33)
  49. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 135
  50. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 137
  51. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 94 (p. 29 - 37)
  52. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 92 (p. 5)
  53. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 104 (p. 27 - 30)
  54. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 91 (p. 41 & 42)
  55. 55.0 55.1 Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 92 (p. 31)
  56. 56.0 56.1 Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 93 (p. 26)
  57. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 94 (p. 37)
  58. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 103 (p. 11-17)
  59. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 108 (p. 42 & 43)
  60. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 102 (p. 31)
  61. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 93 (p. 25)
  62. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 104 (p. 28 - 30)
  63. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 91 (p. 45)
  64. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 92 (p. 4 & 30)
  65. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 103 (p. 14)
  66. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 102 (p. 31 & 32)
  67. Attack on Titan manga: Chapter 116 (p. 36-40)