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The Royal Government (王政府 Ōseifu?) is the ruling system over the people of Paradis Island. From the capital of Mitras, the false Fritz monarchy had for the past hundred years acted as the face of the Royal Government while the Reiss family, formerly the true Fritz family, acted as the secret ruling bloodline. After the coup d'état, a majority of the old government was displaced in favor of a military-led system with the Reiss family ruling publicly. Historia Reiss is currently in command as Queen of the Walls.
The royal government's duty is to administrate humanity's politics, economy, military and society. It also has the obligation to protect the civilians within the Walls. The government officials are responsible for conducting diplomacy with foreign nations.
Prior to the coup d'état, the Royal Government is outwardly led by the puppet king Fritz, who is unrelated to the Reiss family, the true descendants of Karl Fritz. The officials who make up the rest of Fritz's royal government are different from the majority race that comprises the bulk of the population within the Walls, which makes them immune to the mind-altering abilities of the Founding Titan. They are likely Eldians of minority races who curried favor with Karl Fritz in order to obtain their families' positions.
Following the coup d'état, Fritz's position as monarch is replaced with Historia Reiss, a direct descendant of Karl Fritz. The government is controlled by members of the military, who take over from the deposed nobles from the prior assembly. The leaders of the military branches occasionally congregate under Darius Zackly to make key decisions on the future of the Walls. Despite Historia's role as Queen, she is little more than a figurehead, with the Walls effectively becoming a military dictatorship instead. After Zackly's assassination, Dot Pixis becomes the acting Commander-in-Chief.
Fritz's government is largely corrupt and uncaring of the larger population. When Erwin Smith meets the chancellery he realizes that they want to protect their positions and estates more than humanity. This is borne out when Pixis stages a false alert that Wall Rose has been breached by the Armored and Colossus Titans. Fritz's various court advisors choose to seal Wall Sheena even if it would mean the death of half of humanity, because they do not want to risk the possibility of a civil war. One expresses disgust at the thought of refugees in their territory.
Since the ruling nobles are not Subjects of Ymir, they zealously guard their authority. It is not possible for an unknown party to marry into a family due to their wish to remain uninfected by "filthy blood" that would put their power at risk, and after the destruction of Wall Maria they cease to hire any new servants who could potentially be an outside invader.
By contrast, Historia Reiss's reign is marked by an openness that the previous regime had lacked. Her government chooses to share their discoveries about Marley, the Subjects of Ymir, and the truth about their world with the general public, even though such knowledge could potentially cause chaos. However, this transparency does not last. When Eren Yeager goes rogue in Marley, the government attempts to keep his imprisonment secret. This information leaks, causing a rift between the military and the public.
During the reign of Uri Reiss, one of the noblemen of the Assembly informed Kenny Ackerman of the Reiss family's true royalty. After Kenny's attempt to assassinate Uri failed, this nobleman was removed from the Assembly and Kenny took his place.
After the operation where Eren Yeager was rescued from Reiner Braun and Bertolt Hoover, the Assembly summons Erwin Smith to the chancellery in Mitras. During his meeting with the Assembly, Erwin concludes that the nobility within the Royal Government cares only for their own positions and possessions, giving no regard to humanity as a whole. Conspiring with Dot Pixis, together they plan to overthrow the monarchy and appoint a new leader who will work towards the betterment of humanity and allow the Survey Corps to continue its attempts to reach Shiganshina District.
The opportunity to overthrow the Royal Government comes when Erwin Smith receives the news that the Reiss family is the true royal bloodline. After sending the Survey Corps to search for Rod Reiss, the true king of humanity, Erwin Smith is arrested by the Military Police Brigade, framed for orchestrating the murder of Dimo Reeves. When he is brought before King Fritz, the meeting is interrupted by Anka bringing false news that Wall Rose has fallen and Stohess District was under attack. The Assembly decides to close off the gates of Wall Sheena, refusing to accept any refugees. With this proof of the Royal Government's selfish nature, Commander-in-Chief Darius Zackly arrests the nobility and dethrones the Fritz monarchy.
Control over the nation of the Walls is given over to the military. After the death of Rod Reiss outside of Orvud District, Historia Reiss is publicly crowned as the new monarch of the Walls. Members of the military take over the positions of the former Assembly.
Following the Survey Corps' victory in Shiganshina District, the Royal Government convenes to discuss how to proceed with new knowledge of the outside world. After debate from both sides, it is decided to release the findings of the basement to the public.
After coming into contact with the Anti-Marleyan Volunteers, the Royal Government holds a meeting once again, debating over whether it is wise to trust a group led by the Beast Titan's inheritor. Hange Zoë suggests that the benefits the volunteers could offer - both through "The Rumbling", and by protecting the island using wireless communication - would put an alliance in their interests. The government comes to the decision to work with the group.
Historia and other high-ranking military personnel meet with Kiyomi Azumabito, the ambassador of Hizuru, to discuss the details of Zeke Yeager's plan for Paradis Island. The Walls would need to spend the next fifty years modernizing with Hizuru's aid, all while keeping the threat of "The Rumbling" as a deterrent to foreign aggression.
Leak of the Yeager brothers' and the volunteers' imprisonment spreads the seed of protest throughout the Walls. Survey Corps offices, as well as the Royal Government headquarters are surrounded by protesters. At the scene of the HQ, Commander-in-Chief Zackly, the Walls' effective leader, is assassinated when a bomb is detonated in his office. This, alongside the emergence of the Yeagerists led by the escaped Eren Yeager, sends the Walls further into chaos.
Commander Pixis is positioned as the new leader of the Royal Government. He suggests that they surrender to Eren to prevent any unnecessary conflict, though he states that they should not fully submit, but negotiate using Zeke's location as a bargaining chip. However by this point, the Yeagerists are said to be in full control of the Walls.
Despite Pixis's plea, the Yeagerists refuse to negotiate with the military and determined the likelihood of Pixis trying to confiscate the Founder from Eren. The Yeagerists then seize control of a Training Corps branch and kidnap top Survey Corps personnel. Not long after, the various leaders of the military are forced to submit to the Yeagerists and imprison themselves within Shiganshina as they have been dosed with Zeke's spinal fluid.
During Marley's assault on Shiganshina, much of the military's leadership is transformed into Titans and subsequently killed which effectively breaks the military's chain of command.